Oliver Twist’s evil gang master is considered to be one of the Victorian authors’ most distinctive characters, enlisting hoards of street urchins to do his bidding. Now, new evidence discovered in newspaper archives may have shed light on the ‘real-life’ Fagin – who Dickens is thought to have based his miserly character on. Evidence suggests he may actually have been a year-old black ‘child stealer’ called Henry Murphy. Was the real life Fagin, played here by Ben Kinsgley, black? Contemporary newspaper cuttings draws remarkable comparisons between Fagin and a nineteenth century child gang master. It is known that Dickens based many of his characters from those appearing in newspaper cuttings of the time, and it seems Oliver Twist’s Fagin was no different. A newspaper cutting from The Times on January 14, , reports the case of Edward Trabshaw, ‘an intelligent boy aged 10 years’ who had run away from home and fallen in with Murphy’s gang. It talks of Murphy’s son – ‘a copper coloured lad apparently about 13 years old’ – who met the youngster and took him to his father’s lair, where numerous ‘waifs’ were living and sent out every day ‘to rob and steal what they could’. The youngster mirrors the character of the Artful Dodger who, in the novel, enlists Oliver and introduces him to Fagin before moving him in with the gang of young thieves in Saffron Hill. The information came to light after The Times archive editor Rose Wild discovered the article in the newspapers’ records.


There was I think, 2 Brothers no there was one called Frank. As I wasn’t very old don’t remember too much but of late have been thinking of my cousin in the hope she may have some pictures to share with me of our Family. Would love to hear from her, she would now be in her 70s as I am now coming up to 75 this August. After just learning to swim thanks to a neighbour Mr Bishton, I was picked to swim in the school gala which I think was at Kent Street baths.

At the poolside, a teacher told me I would be doing the back-stroke race. I told him I couldn’t swim that way, but he said they had no one else, so by the time I had finished I could have turned the lights off and locked up.

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Please see our Wool Drop Spindle Only for the historical background on drop spindles for wool. Likewise, see our Wool Roving for the historical background on wool roving. The use of the distaff by women was very common during Medieval times and the term “distaff side” of one’s family became known as the maternal relations of the family.

Do you know who your “distaff relatives” are? A Massachusetts law required young people to learn the art of spinning and weaving. Shreds of cotton cloth and cotton bolls have been discovered in a Mexican cave that are at least 7, years old. Other discoveries have been made in Pakistan dating back to B. India is thought to have been the first country to actually cultivate cotton, but people in Egypt’s Nile River Valley and others in Peru were also familiar with cotton farming.

India manufactured and exported a cotton cloth called “muslin” to the Roman Empire as well as Medieval Europe. India continued to export fine muslin cloth until about years ago. By the early s, Native Americans were growing cotton in America, as documented by the Coronado expedition of Spaniards who settled in the Florida region began to grow cotton in

Vintage and Antique Marbles

Sunday 10 July Widely known in Britain as the ‘ Elgin Marbles ‘, campaigners believe it is time to send them back to Athens to allow all the surviving sculptures to be reunited. Here are seven reasons why:

In reality, handmade non-glass marbles do not get much attention by marble collectors. These marbles tend to get caught in the shuffle of the pursuit for the prettier and more colorful glass marbles. However, you should take your time and look at them while building your collection.

This can happen for a few reasons: See, while you were listening to him sulk about his broken heart and smoothing his hair, new girl appeared out of nowhere as a limited-edition item. She attracted him and in some way made it clear usually without a word that if he wants her, he needs to act now or lose his shot. See, you know your friend, inside and out. Sometimes a guy just wants a vacation from himself and his problems. The reality of relationships is that for them to move forward, they need to deepen over time.

And part of deepening a relationship is knowing the other person more and more deeply and gaining a fuller understanding of who they are. Your friend knows you deeply.

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They originated in India as tools for gameplay and were commonly made from stone, glass or clay. Handmade glass marbles were first produced in Germany around German mass production of marbles began around with American production following in the s. Inexpensive marbles flooded the markets in the s, and the older handmade marbles gained new popularity as collectors’ items.

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Other than having one or two examples of each type in their collections, most collectors do not seek out these marbles. Clay and bennington marbles were produced by the millions, in both Germany and the United States, from the mid s through the early s. They were easy and cheap to produce, not requiring the technical knowledge or skill of glass marbles. The first marbles produced in the United States were clay marbles and the first marble-related U.

While clays and benningtons are not in great demand, collectors are more interested in handpainted china marbles and agates. Some of the handpainted chinas are very colorful and beautiful. No marble collection is complete without a sampling. Handpainted chinas can also be quite rare. Scenic chinas rival most handmade glass marbles in terms of the price for rare examples. No marble collection is complete without a sampling of hand-cut agates either.

These marbles were the choice of marble shooters for many years, because of their ability to knock glass marbles out of the ring. Many hand-cut agates exhibit exquisite and complicated natural designs. A fine collection of different hand-cut agates could be created that has fantastic eye appeal.

Marbles: James Guida: : Books

I have rarely seen the inscrutable fashion crowd lose their marbles, but as Cindy, Claudia, Helena, Naomi and Carla all require only first names, obviously minced along behind Donatella Versace after a triumphant show marking 20 years since the death of her brother, designer Gianni , the crowds broke into euphoric rapture, myself included.

Also to note, the supers were looking better than ever 20 years down the line. If the show gained power by looking to the past, the clothes being represented were also channeling nostalgia.

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Since collecting marbles is such a common hobby, it’s important to understand a bit about what makes old and new marbles different. Here are six differences as well as a few tips to help people get a marble collection started. The History of Marbles Thousands of years ago, Egyptians seemed to believe that a marble made of animal bones could be used as a sort of spiritual medium. Meanwhile, other civilizations focused their use of marbles on recreation.

An ancient child’s tomb in modern-day Nepal was found to contain marbles, and Cretan children were known to use agate marbles for games. Roman children loved the game of marbles, and Caesar Augustus himself was known to play.


As for the British position that Thomas Bruce, Lord Elgin, had bought the statues quite legally they ended up in the British Museum when he sold them to try to avoid bankruptcy — well, at the time, Greece was under Turkish occupation: But what would have happened to these sculptures had they stayed in Athens? After all, at the time Lord Elgin helped himself the Parthenon was being used as a fortress. Had the ghastly Lord Elgin not plundered his works of arts, they could have ended up in the footings of some kebab stand.

The modern argument is really political — a poor, put-upon Mediterranean culture is demanding restitution from a fading imperial power. Though modern, independent Greece is a world away from ancient Athens, the country was once the home of Socrates, Plato, and other founders of western thought.

Osler Street Board School opened in with accommodation for boys, girls and infants. It was reorganised in into three departments for senior Boys, Senior Girls, and Junior and Infants.

Heartbreak In , country music sensation Reba McEntire received the shock of a lifetime. After 26 years of marriage, her husband, Narvel Blackstock, decided that he wanted a divorce. By , he was her manager and supported her emotionally while going through a divorce from her first husband. The two became very close during this time and their relationship turned romantic. The couple got married in on a boat in the middle of Lake Tahoe.

Her life and career were on the up and up. How did it all begin?

Help Identifying Vintage Marbles